Posts Tagged ‘Robert Barnum’

Written by Sheryl Dutton
Photos courtesy of Sheryl Dutton

I came across a unique opportunity one day last spring, as I drove around Redland. I had been living in the area for roughly a year, dreaming of starting my own organic farm and homestead. Farming had been a hobby of mine for some time and although my projects had been confined to small plots, I was driven by big ideas. I wanted more experience, working with the land and learning how to turn my love of farming into a possible business. I had recently visited Robert Barnum of Possum Trot Farm to gather fruit and art supplies from his 40-acre grove of rare and useful trees. While I was there, I decided to ask Robert if he needed an apprentice or knew of any opportunities to learn more about farming. Luckily he said yes. He mentioned a New Farmer Apprenticeship Program offered by Florida International University’s Agroecology department, funded by a USDA grant. I got in touch with the program director and applied right away.

The New Farmer Apprenticeship Program included a variety of monthly workshops and 100 hours of field experience. I attended workshops on topics like beekeeping, laurel wilt disease detection, how to apply for farm loans, grants and more. I got to meet many young, prospective farmers with similar goals as mine and the same insatiable thirst for knowledge. For my fieldwork I chose to go to Bee Heaven and Possum Trot, both established Redland farms within 5 miles of my home.

Sheryl and her two boys, attending Farm Day 2013, at Bee Heaven Farm.

Sheryl and her two boys, attending Farm Day 2013, at Bee Heaven Farm.

I started out with Margie Pikarsky on her 5 acre certified organic Bee Heaven Farm. I had been a member of her highly recommended CSA program for about 4 years and had attended events there with my family. I was familiar with the farm and knew I had a lot to learn from Margie. We had spoken many times about our favorite plants, our adventures with chickens and other things when I’d pick up my produce every Saturday. I knew she ran a very organized and well-managed farm but I didn’t know exactly what was involved until I had the chance to work side by side with her and her staff. I got to experience part of the busy CSA season, how all the orders came in, were distributed and then prepared to take to market. Some days we’d work in the packinghouse and fill hundreds of orders, other days we’d work out in the field harvesting or preparing the beds for new crops. Everything about her farm is carefully planned out, solidified by many years of experience and held to a very high standard. I likened her operation to a well-oiled machine, always recalibrating to the whims of Mother Nature.

Sheryl, Robert and John

Sheryl, Robert and John

Then I switched gears, moving on to what would be an unforgettable experience at Possum Trot Farm with Robert Barnum. I had heard many stories about the 40-acre wonderland from friends of mine and after visiting a few times, my interest was piqued. Robert’s collection of rare, edible and useful tree species is quite special.

The mix of mature trees living there are the result of many decades of work, collecting, preserving, selecting and sometimes naming new varieties. He proudly refers to himself as a land steward of the many fruits, nuts, hardwoods, citrus and more that he has cared for throughout his life. For me and the other apprentices that worked there, Possum Trot was an ideal outdoor classroom and Robert’s unique approach to mentoring was a one of a kind experience. Each day was a new adventure. One day we’d be identifying trees, harvesting or cleaning up the nursery, another day we’d be attending an auction, repairing equipment or cooking up interesting meals in his kitchen. Every conversation was educational and I’d say that I definitely learned more than I bargained for!

Nursery maintenance, Possum Trot

Nursery maintenance, Possum Trot

The overall message I gleaned from my time at Bee Heaven and Possum Trot confirmed what I knew but in my hopeful naivety had not accepted. Farming for profit, no matter what angle you come at it, is hard work with unpredictable returns and a multitude of political obstacles to navigate. In my opinion farming has got to be one of the most underappreciated and underpaid professions out there. Don’t get me wrong, there are many successful farmers out there, making a living and making a difference. In no way do I mean to undermine them, but for the most part, the industrial food system (big agriculture) has stacked the odds against local, small farmers. In a way it has forced them to be more innovative. There is a growing trend to eat local and organic, to avoid GMOs and packaged foods. We’re getting back to the basics of fresh, nutrient rich foods like our great grandparents enjoyed. Our health as individuals and as a culture depends on it.

Beekeeping workshop

Beekeeping workshop

Maybe more importantly than the effect our food system has on people, are the long lasting, possibly irreversible effects that conventional farming practices are having on the environment. Small scale, intensive farming has been proven to be more sustainable over time when compared to conventional single crop farming. Widespread uses of chemical fertilizers, pesticides, herbicides, and fungicides have been described by many as an attack on the living world. Conventional farming practices not only pollute the air, water and soil but also pollute the bodies of all living things. Turning a blind eye is not an option.

I wasn’t able to complete my apprenticeship with FIU for personal reasons but I did greatly appreciate the chance to get a behind the scenes look at some of the farms and farmers I had come to admire over the years. The experience did however alter my plans of starting my own organic farm in Redland. After meeting some second-generation farmers in the area and hearing their stories of growing up in Homestead, I questioned whether it would be the best thing for my family. I had to ask myself, “Was farming the kind of future I wanted for my children? Was starting an organic farm a sound investment that I could manage with predictable returns?” My answer to both was an unfortunate no. I decided that I was content to be an avid collector of plants and trees, a small scale, backyard farmer and a supporter of local food. I get to work out my big ideas and make a positive impact in other ways.

View from Poindexter's tailgate

View from Poindexter’s tailgate

I feel like there is a lot of work to do in this area in what might be the most important shift of our generation: Transitioning from being mass consumers to abundant producers, reworking our value system into something that directly benefits us rather than distracts us, utilizing our land in ways that support our health and wellness without disrupting the ability of the natural world to support all life for generations to come. Like I said, big ideas and while we’re at it, why not reinvent what it means to be a farmer in a changing world. The New Farmer Apprenticeship position through FIU’s Agroecology Program addressed just that. It was a valuable experience for me that helped shape my future plans and solidify my understanding of the local food system where I live and beyond. All stereotypes aside, farmers have the job of feeding us all. It’s a big responsibility and they deserve our support! Eat up!

Sheryl Dutton

Sheryl Dutton

Sheryl Dutton currently lives in Miami with her family and works as a Permaculture Designer, specializing in the design and installation of tropical fruit groves, edible forest gardens and small kitchen gardens. Sheryl is the owner of Earthscape Art & Design and is available for consultations.


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9th Annual Farm Day Open House

Sunday, December 22, 2013
11:30 am – 3:00 pm

* Activities *

Hay Rides, Scarecrow Making, and other activities for all the kids, young and young at heart.

* Farm Market *

Choose from locally-grown seasonal organic produce, dried tropical fruit, raw farm honey, heirloom tomato and veggie starts, strawberry plants, goat milk soaps, and other goodies for sale. We accept cash/credit/debit/checks and EBT/SNAP, and with Fresh Access Bucks – double your first $20 dollars of SNAP purchases of fresh fruits and vegetables.

* Live Music *

Featuring local singer-songwriter Grant Livingston

* Family Yoga *

The whole family is invited to a 45 minute multi-level yoga class on the front lawn from 11:30-12:15. Taught by certified yoga instruction Meldy Hernandez, RN, MPH. Bring your own yoga mat or a large towel. Suggested class donation $10.

* Food *

Food and a raffle ticket $10.

Chef Caryl Zook, local organic chef and friend of the farm will prepare fresh-from-the-farm food, served buffet-style. The Cantankerous Chef Robert Barnum will roast Redland-raised corn from a local family farm at the campfire circle.

* Fundraiser *

Retiring Extension agent Dr. Mary Lamberts is holding a fundraiser for Cesar Contreras, husband of farmers market organizer Melissa Contreras. Mary has donated her delightful collection of vegetable-themed tchotchkes that she has acquired over the course of her career. They’ll be set up on a table with a donations jar. Choose your favorite collectible and please be generous! Cesar has recently been diagnosed with a serious illness and his medical bills are escalating. The family does not have health insurance.

Bee Heaven Farm
19000 S.W. 264 St.

From southbound on US 1, turn west (right) on Bauer Drive (S.W. 264th St.), and go approximately 5 miles. The farm is 1/3 mile west of Redland Road (S.W. 187th Ave.) on the left side. Look for the farm sign and flags. Please angle park on the swale and walk on in.

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One of the weirdest looking fruits of summer is jackfruit. It has a thick green knobby skin, could pass for some kind of alien pod. A full-grown fruit may easily weigh 30 to 40 pounds.

Farmer Margie Pikarsky starts opening up a jackfruit.

Farmer Margie Pikarsky starts opening up a jackfruit.

Farmer Margie sells whole fruits of varying sizes on her summertime online store. She also cuts 3 pound chunks to order.

The yellow pouches are edible, but the white membranes are not.

The yellow pouches are edible, but the white membranes are not.

Opening one of these fruits is not for the weak of hand or faint of heart. You’ll need a big, sharp knife to pierce the thick skin, and the blade, your hands and the cutting board all need to be thoroughly oiled so the latex sap doesn’t stick.

You can’t just cut open the fruit, peel it and pop it in your mouth. Its white/gray “rags” or connective membranes are inedible in most varieties and need to be removed. The edible part of the fruit looks like a firm yellow pouch, which contains a large oval seed. You can blanch and roast seeds, or boil in brine, to make a snack that has a taste and texture of chestnuts.

Jackfruit seeds can be cooked and eaten.

Jackfruit seeds can be cooked and eaten.

When it’s ripe, jackfruit has a strong sweet, distinctive aroma, and gives off a good bit of ethylene gas (which can ripen other things in your refrigerator if you’re not careful.) It tastes like a blend of banana, pineapple and vanilla, and has a chewy texture. You can also eat the fruit green or unripe (but be extra careful with the sticky sap, which is greatly reduced when the fruit is fully ripe), and season it like you would curry or chili, or cook it in coconut milk. It said to make for a convincing meat substitute.

Read about Robert Barnum of Possum Trot Tropical Fruit Nursery growing jackfruit.


Jackfruit ripening on the tree.

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Jackfruit tree

Some of the strangest tropical fruits are available during the summer. One of the biggest and most unusual looking is jackfruit. It is as large as a melon or bigger, mostly oval in shape, and has knobby or spiny green skin. The typical size at market is 20 pounds, but they can get as big as 60 to 80 pounds. It’s commonly sold cut in chunks.

Grower Robert Barnum has about 200 jackfruit trees at his Possum Trot Tropical Fruit Nursery, interplanted with other trees on his 40 acre property. We strolled through a section of a dozen tall trees, all loaded with large fruit which varied in shape and size, some smaller and rounder, others more elongated. You can tell when a fruit is ripe because it sounds like a drum when you thump on it. Another clue is that its spines flatten out as it ripens, although that isn’t the best indicator, because some varieties have flatter spines than others. But the best way to tell ripeness is by smell. Ripe jackfruit has a strong aroma and gives off a lot of ethylene gas. If you put a whole ripe fruit in a refrigerator, it will keep ripening, and the whole interior will smell like it.

Opening up a such a large fruit is not a casual undertaking. It requires stamina and patience, and a large sharp knife well coated with vegetable oil. The fruit’s thick rind releases a latex sap when you cut into it, and can gum things up. The edible part of the fruit is the aril, or thick sac of chewy yellow flesh that has an oval, shiny brown seed inside. The grayish-colored connective membranes called rags are generally not edible and need to be removed. Cleaning the fruit involves taking out the arils, and separating the seeds. Rags and rind are thrown away. Depending on the size, the job can take a good hour or more. Cleaned fruit will keep 2-3 weeks in a zipper bag in the refrigerator, or 6 months in the freezer.

An open jackfruit.

Jackfruit vary in the texture of their flesh. Some kinds are soft and wet, suited for making drinks, and others are more firm and dry. Those kinds are more desirable because they can be eaten ripe or unripe. Robert says the ripe fruit tastes like pineapple-banana with hints of vanilla, but I can smell and taste a musky overtone. (Others have told me the flavor reminds them of Juicy Fruit gum.) Unripe fruit is has a chewy texture, and is usually cooked and used as a meat substitute. Jackfruit curry is a popular dish made with unripe fruit, as is fake pulled pork seasoned with BBQ sauce. Seeds are also edible. Robert recommends blanching seeds in boiling salt water three times to remove the astringent flavor, then roasting in the oven. They taste a lot like chestnuts. You can save seeds to grow your own tree, but you’ll have to be patient. It takes anywhere from four to 15 years, depending on the variety, before a jackfruit tree starts to bear fruit.

You can find whole and cut jackfruit from Possum Trot at the Upper Eastside Farmers Market, Verde Gardens Farmers Market, and at Bee Heaven Farm’s online store.

Robert Barnum and jackfruit tree.

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Freshly harvested macadamia nuts.

Fresh pesticide-free macadamia nuts have been available at several farmers markets the last few weeks. Yes, they are locally grown! The green-husked nuts come from Possum Trot Tropical Fruit Nursery, where grower Robert Barnum has about a dozen trees. This summer, Robert managed to harvest about 45 pounds this summer, and fresh nuts should be available for about two more weeks.

Husk splits open by itself when the nut is ripe.

Fresh macadamias don’t look like a nut. They have a green rind or husk that needs to be cut and peeled off. It will split by itself when the nut is ripe. Robert suggests leaving fresh nuts out on the counter for a few days to dry out a bit. When the husk is slightly dry, it is easier to remove. If you have a dehydrator, you can speed up the process. Dry them for a few hours on low heat until the husks split. Use a sharp knife to pare them off.

Underneath the husk is a smooth, dark brown shell that is tough to crack. Dry the husked nuts in the dehydrator again, for two to three days at 100 degrees F. This will dry the nut meat a bit and cause it to pull away from the shell, making it easier to crack. If they crack cleanly, they’re ready.

Tap the hammer lightly to crack the shell.

Robert’s cracking technique is very DIY. He carefully holds the nut in place on the side of a sledgehammer, and taps it with a claw hammer. If you don’t have two hammers (or don’t want to risk smashing your fingers), you can try a concrete slab or sidewalk and tap at the shells until they crack. (Whatever you do, do NOT do this on a granite counter top or the stone will crack. Don’t say I didn’t warn you!) Nutcrackers don’t apply enough force to crack the shell.

Shelled raw macadamia. It tastes like coconut.

Once the shell is cracked, you have to pry it open. Robert used a pocketknife. Inside is the white, mild flavored nut. You can eat it raw, or lightly toast and salt it. Cracking nuts and getting the meat out is labor intensive, but somehow squirrels are able to open nuts without any tools.

What squirrels leave behind.

The macadamia trees have been bearing well in past summers, but those harvests were much smaller because of The Squirrel Problem. Sounds like a well-worn cliche, but Robert has been battling squirrels for years, trying to keep them out of the nut trees. The little animals have a powerful attraction for macadamias, but waste a lot. They’ll eat part of the nut, cracking it open with their powerful jaws, and let the rest of it fall to the ground.

On a recent visit to the macadamias, two mutts that accompanied Robert and me went racing ahead, barking excitedly. A brown hound ran up to a tree, clambered up its lower branches, barking vigorously. It had spotted something. As Robert and I approached, the dog climbed down. I peered up at higher branches but saw nothing. “Squirrel,” Robert said. “The little critter is hard to spot. It will hide on the opposite side of a branch, and all you’ll see is the tip of its tail, or an eye peeking out.” I did see plenty of half-eaten nuts in the leaf litter below, a sign that squirrels had been munching there for some time.

Feast like a squirrel! Fresh pesticide-free macadamia nuts are available at the Upper East Side Farmers Market, Verde Gardens Farmers Market, and through Bee Heaven Farm’s online store for a limited time.

Waiting to be picked.

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